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RE: SUO: Organizations/Positions




Chris,

	A couple more comments below.

Thanks,
Ian

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Chris Partridge [mailto:chris_partridge@csi.com]
> Sent: Wednesday, September 12, 2001 7:01 AM
> To: 'Ian Niles'; Standard-Upper-Ontology (E-mail)
> Cc: 'cassidy@micra.com'
> Subject: RE: SUO: Organizations/Positions
> 
> 
> Ian,
> 
> A couple of comments - marked CP>>.
> 
> Chris
> 
> -----Original Message-----
> From:	Ian Niles [SMTP:iniles@teknowledge.com]
> Sent:	Monday, September 10, 2001 7:19 PM
> To:	Standard-Upper-Ontology (E-mail)
> Subject:	RE: SUO: Organizations/Positions
> 
> 
> 
> Hi Pat,
> 
> 	Thanks for your comments.  Sorry it's taken so long for 
> me to get
> back to you - I was on vacation last week.
> 
> -Ian
> 
> > -----Original Message-----
> > From: Patrick Cassidy [mailto:pcassidy@bellatlantic.net]
> > Sent: Saturday, September 01, 2001 7:01 AM
> > To: Ian Niles
> > Cc: Standard-Upper-Ontology (E-mail)
> > Subject: Re: SUO: Organizations/Positions
> >
> >
> > Ian --
> >    Several questions about these definitions:
> > (1) it appears that an organization cannot occupy a
> > "position".  This seems to leave out subcontractors
> > and groups within the company.   Would there be
> > another class such as "OrganizationRole" that
> > could be filled by a group (or "OrganizationUnit")?
> 
> Right, according to the definitions given, an 'Organization' can be a
> 'subOrganizations' of another 'Organization', but an 
> 'Organization' cannot
> occupy a position.  Thus, we can, I think, model the 
> appropriate relation
> between an 'Organization' and its divisions.  As for 
> subcontractors, we
> might just need to create a special predicate for this relation.
> 
> CP>>Are you saying it is right that "an 'Organization' cannot 
> occupy a 
> position"? So Britain cannot be a member of the EU and did 
> not occupy the 
> Presidency last year, etc. etc.

I agree that we might want to handle this sort of case.  If so, we can
change the selectional restriction on the first argument position of
'occupiesPosition' from 'Human' to 'CognitiveAgent'.  What do you think?

> CP>>Subcontractors are a difficult case as legally their 
> labour is being 
> purchased - i.e. they are not legally employees (members). 
> The problem is 
> how to describe this kind of ownership relation.

I agree that it's a difficult case.  Any ideas you have about how to
formalize it would be appreciated.

> 
> >
> > (2) The comment for OrganizationUnit would be
> > clearer if it spcifically stated that an
> > OrganizationUnit coul dhave zero or one members,
> > unlike Organization.
> 
> OK, thanks.  I've added this to the documentation string.
> 
> >
> >
> > (3) The "employs" relation relates a companny to an
> > individual person.  Is there another relation that
> > relates a company to contractor, which may be
> > another company?
> 
> Well, the 'employs' predicate covers both the case of 
> full-time employment
> and contractual employment.  We could, however, create two predicates
> 'employsPermanently' and 'employsTemporarily' (perhaps these 
> aren't the 
> best
> names, but you get the idea) that are subrelations of 'employs'.
> 
> CP>>We talk about employing a company - what kind of 
> employment is this?

I think we could handle this case in the same way I propose to handle the
other problematic case you raised, viz. broaden the selectional restriction
on 'employs' from 'Human' to 'CognitiveAgent'.  Since a company is an
'OrganizationUnit', it will then be possible for one company to employ
another.

> 
> >
> > (4) the documentation of &%Organization says:
> > > The continued existence of an &%Organization is not
> > dependent on any of
> > > its members, its location, or its particular facility.
> >   This seems to be more appropriate for &%OrganizationUnit,
> > since an &%Organization must have at least two members
> > as a sublcass of Collection.
> 
> I agree.  Thanks for catching this.  I'll make the changes to the
> documentation strings.
> 
> >
> >     Pat Cassidy
> >
> > =============================================
> >
> >
> > Ian Niles wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi All,
> > >
> > >         I've been trying to formalize part of the exchange
> > that we've had
> > > recently on the concepts of organization, postion within an
> > organization,
> > > etc.  The formal definitions for the new concepts and
> > revised SUMO concepts
> > > is presented at the end of this message, but these 
> definitions give
> > > essentially the following structure, which I think both
> > Martin King and
> > > Chris Partridge accept:
> > >
> > >         CognitiveAgent
> > >             |
> > >             |
> > >       OrganizationUnit
> > >           /   \
> > >          /     \
> > >         /       \
> > > Organization    Position
> > >
> > > Together with this structure is a set of predicates (also
> > formally defined
> > > at the end of this message):  'occupiesPosition' (relates a
> > person to the
> > > position they occupy within an organization),
> > 'subOrganizations' (relates
> > > one organization to another of which it is a part), and
> > 'employs' (relates a
> > > person to the organization of which he/she is a member).
> > >
> > >         As you might recall, I tried in a previous email to
> > extract various
> > > criteria for organizations from some of the traffic on this
> > subject.  These
> > > criteria are as follows:
> > >
> > >         1.  An organization has agency, e.g. it exhibits
> > intentionality, and
> > > it has  rights, responsibilities, and obligations.
> > >
> > >         2.  An organization may have members, but it is not
> > required to have
> > > members.  There are many examples of organizations, e.g.
> > corporations and
> > > churches, that have assets, are liable for certain claims
> > etc, even though
> > > they have no members.
> > >
> > >         3.  An organization has temporal extent.  It comes
> > into being at a
> > > certain         point in time, and it goes out of existence
> > at another
> > > point.
> > >
> > >         4.  An organization can have various sorts of
> > members.  Owners are
> > > members         of organizations, and employees, directors,
> > and other
> > > stakeholders may also   be members of organizations
> > (although perhaps in
> > > different senses).  An  organization may also have other
> > organizations as
> > > members.
> > >
> > > I think that the structure and predicates presented
> > informally above and
> > > formally below make significant headway in satisfying all
> > of these criteria.
> > > Let's consider them in turn.  As for 1 and 3, these are
> > satisfied for the
> > > same reason that they were before.  In the SUMO, 
> 'Organization' is a
> > > subclass of 'Agent' (more specifically, 'CognitiveAgent' 
> in the new
> > > proposal) and 'Agent' is a subclass of 'Object', so
> > organizations are agents
> > > and they have a position in space-time.
> > >
> > > As for criteria 2 and 4, these were not completely
> > satisfied by my earlier
> > > proposed function 'GroupAgentFn', but I think the concepts
> > outlined above do
> > > satisfy them.  Consider criterion 2.  The sticking point 
> here is the
> > > stipulation that organizations are not required to have
> > members.  In the
> > > structure above, we distinguish two senses of organization, viz.
> > > 'OrganizationUnit' and 'Organization'.  The latter is
> > required to have
> > > members (in fact, more than one member), because it is a 
> subclass of
> > > 'Collection' (the details about this are presented in the
> > formal section
> > > below).  However, 'OrganizationUnit' is not a subclass of
> > 'Collection',
> > > because it is meant to cover both organizations and
> > positions, so there is
> > > no requirement that an 'OrganizationUnit' have any members.
> >  Accordingly, we
> > > now have a notion of organization that covers "empty"
> > organizations.  As for
> > > the fourth criterion, the new predicate 
> 'occupiesPosition' allows us
> > > distinguish, via 'Position', all of the various member types of an
> > > organization.  Another advantage of this predicate is that
> > we can account
> > > for the important fact that the person who occupies a
> > position may have
> > > different rights, responsibilities, etc. from the position
> > itself.  This is
> > > because, on the current proposal, the agent who fills the
> > first slot of
> > > 'occupiesPosition' is potentially a different agent from
> > the agent who fills
> > > the second slot of this predicate.  In some cases, the two
> > agents would be
> > > the same, but establishing this would require axioms 
> specific to the
> > > position in question.
> > >
> > > =======================
> > > Formal SUMO Definitions
> > > =======================
> > >
> > > (subclass OrganizationUnit CognitiveAgent)
> > > (documentation OrganizationUnit "An &%Organization or a
> > functional unit
> > > within an &%Organization, e.g. positions, divisions, and
> > departments.  For
> > > example, the Shell Corporation, the accounting department
> > at Shell, the
> > > positions of CEO and mail room supervisor at Shell, etc.
> > would all be
> > > instances of &%OrganizationUnit.")
> > >
> > > (subclass Organization OrganizationUnit)
> > > (subclass Organization GroupOfPeople)
> > > (documentation Organization "An &%Organization is a corporate or
> > > similar institution, distinguished from other &%Agents.
> > The &%members
> > > of an &%Organization typically have a common purpose or function.
> > > The continued existence of an &%Organization is not
> > dependent on any of
> > > its members, its location, or its particular facility.
> > Note that parts
> > > of &%Organizations should not be included here, unless they are
> > > &%subOrganizations of an &%Organization.")
> > >
> > > (subclass Position OrganizationUnit)
> > > (relatedInternalConcept Position occupies)
> > > (documentation Position "A formal position of reponsibility
> > within an
> > > &%Organization.  Examples of &%Positions include president,
> > laboratory
> > > director, senior researcher, sales representative, etc.")
> > >
> > > (instance occupiesPosition TernaryPredicate)
> > > (domain occupiesPosition 1 Human)
> > > (domain occupiesPosition 2 Position)
> > > (domain occupiesPosition 3 Organization)
> > > (documentation occupiesPosition "(&%occupiesPosition
> > ?PERSON ?POSITION ?ORG)
> > > means that ?PERSON holds the &%Position ?POSITION at
> > &%Organization ?ORG.
> > > For example, (&%occupiesPosition &%TomSmith &%ResearchDirector
> > > &%AcmeLaboratory) means that &%TomSmith is a research
> > director at Acme
> > > Labs.")
> > >
> > > (=>
> > >    (and
> > >       (occupiesPosition ?PERSON1 ?POSITION ?ORG)
> > >       (occupiesPosition ?PERSON2 ?POSITION ?ORG))
> > >    (equal ?PERSON1 ?PERSON2))
> > >
> > > ;; The axiom above stipulates that no more than one person
> > can occupy a
> > > given
> > > ;; position.  Note that it follows from axioms already in
> > the SUMO that an
> > > ;; Organization consists of more than one person, because
> > 'Organization' is
> > > a
> > > ;; subclass of 'GroupOfPeople', which is a subclass of
> > 'Group', which is a
> > > ;; subclass of 'Collection', and we have the following axiom:
> > >
> > > (=>
> > >    (instance ?COLL Collection)
> > >    (exists (?OBJ1 ?OBJ2)
> > >         (and
> > >          (member ?OBJ1 ?COLL)
> > >            (member ?OBJ2 ?COLL)
> > >            (not
> > >                 (equal ?OBJ1 ?OBJ2)))))
> > >
> > > (=>
> > >    (occupiesPosition ?PERSON ?POSITION ?ORG)
> > >    (employs ?ORG ?PERSON))
> > >
> > > (subrelation employs member)
> > > (domain employs 1 Organization)
> > > (domain employs 2 Human)
> > > (documentation employs "(&%employs ?ORG ?PERSON) means 
> that ?ORG has
> > > hired ?PERSON and currently retains ?PERSON, on a salaried or
> > > contractual basis, to provide services in exchange for monetary
> > > compensation.")
> > >
> > > (subrelation subOrganizations subCollection)
> > > (domain subOrganizations 1 Organization)
> > > (domain subOrganizations 2 Organization)
> > > (documentation subOrganizations "(&%subOrganizations ?ORG1
> > ?ORG2) means
> > > that ?ORG1 is an &%Organization which is a proper part of the
> > > &%Organization ?ORG2.")
> >
> > --
> > =============================================
> > Patrick Cassidy
> >
> > MICRA, Inc.                      || (908) 561-3416
> > 735 Belvidere Ave.               || (908) 668-5252 (if no answer)
> > Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054        || (908) 668-5904 (fax)
> > 				
> > internet:   cassidy@micra.com
> > =============================================
> > << File: ATT00003.txt; charset = gb2312 >>
> 
>